Iraqi advance of Kuwait in 1990 used by UK to boost arms sales

The British supervision saw Iraq’s advance of Kuwait as an “unparalleled opportunity” to sell arms to Gulf states, according to recently declassified tip documents.

The memos, expelled by a National Archives, exhibit how in a rave to a 1990 Gulf fight ministers and polite servants scrambled to safeguard Britain’s arms manufacturers could take advantage of a approaching arise in orders for troops hardware.

The papers embody trusted briefings from Alan Clark, afterwards counterclaim shopping minister, to a primary minister, Margaret Thatcher, as he toured Gulf states on a eve of a war. The government’s efforts reaped dividends. The fight supposing a poignant fillip for arms sales to a segment and helped maintain a clever attribute that continues to this day.

The latest annual news from a government’s Defence and Security Organisation shows that a UK won £6bn of arms deals in 2016 – representing 9% of a tellurian market. Half of a sum value was to a Middle East.

Over 10 years, a news ranks Britain as a second biggest arms play in the world behind a US.

In a minute noted “secret”, created on 19 Aug 1990, days after Saddam Hussein’s army had invaded Kuwait, Clark wrote a private memo to Thatcher in that he described a approaching response from a US and a allies as “unparalleled opportunity” for a Defence Export Services Organisation (now famous as a DSO).

Clark explained: “Whatever deployment policies we adopt we contingency emphasize that this is an forlorn event for DESO; a immeasurable proof operation with live ammunition and ‘real’  trials.”

Later in a memo, Clark adds: “I have pencilled a list of stream counterclaim sales prospects during a start of a crisis. These are now expected to be brought brazen and boost in volume if we do a stuff.”

Other memos showed that Clark used meetings with a emir of Qatar and with a Bahrain counterclaim apportion to pull for arms exports. In serve briefings he identified a United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan as intensity customers. Joe Lo, a researcher during Campaign Against Arms Trade, pronounced a same countries were now being targeted by a UK for counterclaim exports.



Alan Clark: ‘I have pencilled a list of stream counterclaim sales prospects during a start of a crisis. These are now expected to be brought brazen and boost in volume if we do a stuff.’ Photograph: Richard Gardner/Rex

“The times might have changed, though a mindset is still a same,” Lo said. “These revelations uncover that a UK supervision saw a entrance of a initial Gulf fight not as an imminent charitable catastrophe, though as an event for arms companies to distinction from a genocide and destruction.”

In one lecture document, drawn adult on 7 Aug and noted “restricted covering confidential”, polite servants discussed probable counterclaim sales.

Among a intensity orders they were perplexing to move in were 36 Westland Black Hawk helicopters from Abu Dhabi, in a understanding value £325m. Oman was listed as meddlesome in shopping Warrior dried fighting vehicles value £55m, as good as fixation an sequence for Challenger II tanks. Bahrain wanted to buy Hawk jets from British Aerospace, while, Saudi Arabia was listed as being meddlesome in a £200m understanding for 7 hovercraft.

Clark believed that pity comprehension with a Gulf states in a run-up to fight could be a useful selling apparatus for a arms industry. He modernized a devise for a comparison comprehension officer to make weekly visits to Gulf states to share “highly sanitised” briefings that would not be in “violation of a understandings with a US”. Clark was transparent about a advantages of such visits, observant that they would “provide a useful snack for a DESO deputy when appropriate”.

The papers uncover how Clark visited Gulf monarchs in a days heading adult to a fight to underline UK support for them and highlight a speed and response of a British troops response. He told Thatcher that his instinct was to “go in heavily and urgently” opposite Iraq in a imminent conflict.

Charles Powell, Thatcher’s private secretary, told Clark in a memo that he wanted him to use his revisit to Gulf rulers to indicate out that a UK has been faster and improved during responding to assistance a Gulf allies than France, an arms trade rival.

He also asked Clark to revisit a smaller Gulf states that felt that a UK “has not been amply courteous to their confidence needs and concerns”.

The emanate of exports was clearly a supportive emanate for ministers, however. In one memo to Powell, William Waldegrave, apportion of state for unfamiliar and Commonwealth affairs, against a government’s preference to lift Saddam’s tellurian rights abuses, observant that it annoyed a unavoidable doubt of “why did we go on doing so most business with him?”

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